Student affairs literature on racial identity development is becoming increasingly important in today’s society.  The page highlights the traditional theories used to examine the racial of students.

Rowe, Bennett, and Atkinson White Racial Consciousness Model

Rowe, Bennett, and Atkinson’s White Racial Consciousness Model  Wayne Rowe, Sandra Bennett, and Donald Atkinson introduced the White racial consciousness model in 1994.  This theory offers a model to speak to the role White plays into the relationships with themselves...

Helm’s Model of White Identity Development

Helm’s Model of White Identity Development  This theory assumes all individuals who identify as White begin with views of racism. Additionally, student affairs professionals will most likely interact with students in stage 3 & 4. Previous cohorts of FSU students have...

Kim’s Asian American Identify Development Model

Kim’s Asian American Identify Development Model Jean Kim's Asian American Identity Development Model emphasizes racial identity to showcase the "social and psychological consequences" of being racially minoritized in the United States. The purpose of this theory was...