This page highlights the traditional student affairs theories used to examine student identity development from a racial, ethnic, sexuality and gender standpoint.  For additional information on the theories listed below, please select the theory.

Brent Bilodeau’s Frame of Transgender Identity Development

Brent Bilodeau’s Frame of Transgender Identity Development  Previous cohorts of FSU students have developed these printable summaries and used them to prepare for test and papers.  We hope they'll be of help to you too. Stages, Levels, Phases, and Components of the...

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Worthington et al. Heterosexual Identity Development Theory

Worthington et al. Heterosexual Identity Development Theory Worthington et al. Heterosexual Identity Development Theory has defined heterosexuality identity development as “the individual and social processes by which heterosexually identified persons acknowledge and...

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Bem’s Sex Role Types Theory

Bem’s Sex Role Types Bem’s theory refers to the theory that children learn about what it means to be male and female from the culture in which they live.  According to this theory, children adjust their behavior to fit in with the gender norms and expectations of...

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Evans et al.’s Transgender Identity Development

Transgender Identity Development (Evans et al., 2010) Previous cohorts of FSU students have developed these printable summaries and used them to prepare for test and papers.  We hope they'll be of help to you too. Stages, Levels, Phases, and Components of the Theory:...

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Torres’ Model of Hispanic Identity Development

Torres’ Model of Hispanic Identity Development Previous cohorts of FSU students have developed these printable summaries and used them to prepare for test and papers.  We hope they'll be of help to you too. Stages, Levels, Phases, and Components of the Theory:   Model...

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Josselson’s Theory of Identity Development

Josselson's Theory of Identity Development Ruthellen Josselson’s Identity Theory explores why some women encounter a crisis, and whether or not they integrate that into their identity. This theory takes James Marcia’s four identity groups and applies them to women....

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Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development  Previous cohorts of FSU students have developed these printable summaries and used them to prepare for test and papers.  We hope they'll be of help to you too.   Trust vs. Mistrust (Infants, 0 to 1 year) The first stage of...

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Berry’s Process of Acculturation Model

Berry's Process of Acculturation Model Previous cohorts of FSU students have developed these printable summaries and used them to prepare for test and papers.  We hope they'll be of help to you too. Stages, Levels, Phases, and Components of the Theory:  Four phases...

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Phinney’s Model of Ethnic Identity Development

Phinney’s Model of Ethnic Identity Development Jean S. Phinney developed a three stage model of ethnic identity development (1992) based on research with minority adolescents combined with other ego identity and ethnic identity models, especially the works of Marcia...

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Dillion’s Model of Sexual Identity Development

Dillion’s Model of Sexual Identity Development Dillon et al's synthesis model is based on Fassinger’s parallel model & Macia’s ego identity model and describes determinations and status of sexual identity development. Dr. Frank Dillon is a graduate of the University...

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Cass’s Model of Sexual Orientation Formation

Cass’s Model of Sexual Orientation Formation Cass's model is known by many as the first model to treat gay people as "normal" in hetero-sexist society. It is important to note that these stages can be revisited at different stages in life.   Vivienne Cass developed...

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Rowe, Bennett, and Atkinson White Racial Consciousness Model

Rowe, Bennett, and Atkinson’s White Racial Consciousness Model  Wayne Rowe, Sandra Bennett, and Donald Atkinson introduced the White racial consciousness model in 1994.  This theory offers a model to speak to the role White plays into the relationships with themselves...

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Helm’s Model of White Identity Development

Helm’s Model of White Identity Development  This theory assumes all individuals who identify as White begin with views of racism. Additionally, student affairs professionals will most likely interact with students in stage 3 & 4. Previous cohorts of FSU students have...

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Kim’s Asian American Identify Development Model

Kim’s Asian American Identify Development Model Jean Kim's Asian American Identity Development Model emphasizes racial identity to showcase the "social and psychological consequences" of being racially minoritized in the United States. The purpose of this theory was...

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Chickering’s Theory of Identity Development

Chickering’s Theory of Identity Development Arthur Chickering's Seven Vectors theorize the "tasks" that students must go through while developing their identity. Previous cohorts of FSU students have developed these printable summaries and used them to prepare for...

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