Breton, Isajiw, Kalbach & Reitz’s Components of Ethnic Identity

Brief Overview
Printable Summary (PDF)

Previous cohorts of FSU students have developed these printable summaries and used them to prepare for test and papers.  We hope they’ll be of help to you too.

Stages, Levels, Phases, and Components of the Theory

Stages, Levels, Phases, and Components of the Theory:  

This theory established ethnic identity into internal and external components.

  • External or Internal –
    • An individual exudes a specific identity through language, media depictions, and friendship circles or individual assumes an ethnic identity through self-images, loyalty to ethnic group, attachment to group through a variety of avenues
Application of Theory to Practice
This section is designed to provide student affairs professionals, staff, and faculty members with tips and tools to apply theory to practice.
Annotations of Associated Literature

Annotations listed below are associated with the author’s original work to provided a more in-depth look at the theory.

Original Citation

Breton, R., Isajiw, W. W., Kalbach, W. E., & Reitz, J. G. (1990). Ethnic identity and equality. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Additional Resources

This page was written and created by Michelle Robinson. The webpage is maintained by Amanda Peerce and Jesse Ford.  For information on the page, please contact Amanda Peerce at or Jesse Ford at