Berry’s Process of Acculturation Model

Brief Overview
Printable Summary (PDF)

Previous cohorts of FSU students have developed these printable summaries and used them to prepare for test and papers.  We hope they’ll be of help to you too.

Stages, Levels, Phases, and Components of the Theory

Stages, Levels, Phases, and Components of the Theory:  Four phases towards self-authorship:

  • Acculturation
    • ways individuals of different ethnicities relate and assimilate to the dominate culture
  • Four Strategies:
    • Assimilate
      • Individual identifies strictly with dominate culture and abandons his or her own ethnicity
    • Marginalize
      • Individual conjures he or her own identity separate from his or her own ethnicity or dominate ethnicity
    • Separate
      • Individual identifies with his or her own ethnicity with no regard to any other ethnicity, especially the dominate culture
    • Integrate
      • Individual identifies with his or her own ethnicity, as well as, understands infusion of dominate ethnicity into the holistic identity
Application of Theory to Practice

This section is designed to provide student affairs professionals, staff, and faculty members with tips and tools to apply theory to practice.

Annotations of Associated Literature

“Students who worked with advisors who encouraged reflection in goal setting and intentional planning and discussed with students their nonacademic life experiences were more likely to develop abilities and perspectives associated with self-authorship” (Evans et al., 190).

Original Citation

Berry, J. W. (1984). Cultural relations in plural societies: Alternatives to segregation and their socio-psychological implications. In N. Miller & M.B. Brewer (Eds.), Groups in contact(pp. 11-27). Orlando, FL: Academic.

Berry, J. W. (1993). Ethnic identity in plural societies. In M.E. Bernal & G. P. Knight (Eds.), Ethnic identity: Formation and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities (pp. 271- 296). Albany: State University of New York Press.

Additional Resources

This page was written and created by Michelle Robinson. The webpage is maintained by Amanda Peerce and Jesse Ford.  For information on the page, please contact Amanda Peerce at or Jesse Ford at